California Research
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Research about harassment and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in California schools is a valuable tool for understanding the experiences of LGBT youth, youth with LGBT parents, and students who are perceived as LGBT in our schools. This research also helps us identify what steps schools can take to improve school safety and create a positive school climate for all youth. Use this research to help you advocate for change in your school.

If you would like to conduct your own school climate survey, GSA Network can provide you with sample surveys and help you analyze the results. Contact us!

GSA Network has partnered with the California Safe Schools Coalition and Dr. Stephen Russell to help conduct, analyze, and publish many of the research briefs and reports below.

Lessons that Matter: LGBTQ Inclusivity and School Safety
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
Previous research has shown a correlation between schools with LGBTQ-inclusive lessons and student-reported feelings of safety. In this research brief, we hone in on the specific classes and types of inclusive lessons that most positively impact school climate. For information and resources around implementing LGBTQ-inclusive lessons, please visit the FAIR Education Act section of our website.
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Understanding School Safety for Transgender Students
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
Research shows that transgender students often face unsafe school environments to a greater extent even than their lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) peers. In this research brief we report on prior studies and present new data about school safety for transgender students.
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Gender Non-conformity and School Safety: Documenting the problem and steps schools can take
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
This research brief documents that students in California report significant harassment at school because they do not conform to gender expectations and stereotypes. Such harassment is reported by many students, and is more often reported by students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). The brief documents that gender non-conformity based harassment is more common in schools that lack inclusive anti-harassment policies, teacher intervention when harassment occurs, and curriculum focused on LGBT issues.
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School Safety for Middle School Students
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
Most of the research on student bullying and school safety focuses on high school students.  This research brief uses data from three middle schools in one school district in California to study school safety, school policies, and strategies for creating safer schools for middle school students.
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Understanding School Safety and the Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition 
This research brief examines bias-motivated harassment and school safety for students of color and students who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). The results show that harassment and bullying of both kinds are often experienced by students of color and LGBT students; those who experience both kinds of harassment are particularly at risk. 
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Understanding Differences Between Schools in Overall LGBT School Safety 
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition 
We already know that school safety is associated with student well-being and academic achievement. However, while previous research has focused on individual students and factors that predict individual student safety, less is known about whether some schools are safer than others, and why. In this research brief, we draw from several data sources to examine differences across schools in safety for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students.
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Multiple Forms of Bias-Related Harassment at School 
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition 
This research brief documents data showing  that students experience multiple forms of bullying or harassment. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans-gender (LGBT) students report more bullying compared to heterosexual students. There are not strong differences based on race and ethnicity, but there are strong differences in bias-based bullying from middle school into high school.
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School Safety and Academic Achievement
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
This research documents data showing that students in California report better academic outcomes when they feel safe at school – this result is  particularly strong for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)  students. School safety is linked to higher school grades as well as intentions to attend college. 
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School Safety for Students with LGBT Parents
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
This research brief explores if California's schools are safe for students whose parents are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and/or transgender (LGBT). Steps that schools can take to improve the climate for students with LGBT parents are discussed.
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The Economic Cost of Bullying at School
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
Harassment at school based on sexual orientation is linked to risk behavior, poor grades, and emotional distress for students. These personal costs are clearly important to individual students, but what are the economic costs of harassment for the school system? This research brief examines the economic costs of bullying against LGBT students.
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LGBT Issues in the Curriculum Promotes School Safety
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
Does including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) issues in the curriculum promote safer school climates? Curriculum that includes attention to LGBT people and history has been controversial. Yet, some argue that such curriculum will promote feelings of safety at school among LGBT youth - some even argue that inclusive curriculum will make all students feel safer.
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LGBT Student Safety: Steps Schools Can Take
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
This research brief shows the 5 steps schools can take to improve safety.
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Harassment Based on Sexual Orientation and its Consequences
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
This research brief shows that every year over 200,000 students in California are harassed because they are gay or lesbian or someone thought they were. This harassment is linked to: weaker connections to school, higher levels of risk, and unsafe school climates.
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District Policies and Trainings
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
What is the state of school safety policy in California school districts? We conducted a survey of one-third of California's school districts and with that data created our first in a series of research briefs.
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Safe Place to Learn
Source: California Safe Schools Coalition
The Safe Place to Learn report was released in January 2004 by the California Safe Schools Coalition and the 4-H Center for Youth Development at UC Davis. The largest ever study of harassment in schools based on sexual orientation and gender identity shows the problem is widespread, dangerous, and preventable.
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School Climate In California
Source: GLSEN
This research brief examines the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students in California, using available data from GLSEN's National School Climate Surveys in 2009.
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